Have you ever seen an action movie involving “hacking”? The one where the hero must figure out some sort of visual graphic interface puzzle to break into the plot device to save the day? Obviously this is more than a little misrepresentative of how such things work. I personally liken it to a sort of crossword puzzle. You have many points you can start at, and as you go and find information, the more information is revealed through what you already know. In this way, when someone attempts to break into networks that are not theirs, they have what are referred to as points of ingress. These are the “entrances” people can use to enter your network and start doing the things bad people do in others’ networks.
So logic dictates the best way to stop this from happening is to block these points of ingress; if there is no entrance, they cannot enter. This is the objective of many anti-malware programs and firewalls, but no network is ironclad. There are many “entrances” you might not have heard of. These can include:
- SSH (SecureShell)
- Internet Port 80
- Internet Port 443 (Https webpages you see commonly)
- E-mail SMTP Port 25
- E-mail alternate SMTP Port 587
- E-mail POP Port 110
- Remote Desktop port 3389
- PPTP Tunneling Protocol port 1723
- SQL port 1433 and 1434
These may seem complex and numerous, but most of these are simple things one might expect. Things such as internet webpages, E-mail, and remote desktop services, are points of ingress many people are familiar with. However, most people don’t think of telephone networks when they think of “hacking” and data theft, yet it is just as much a weak point in network security as an online webpage.
As always, Micro Systems Management is committed to providing the best data security services we can offer to our clients. If you have any questions regarding this topic, ask about our upcoming event on the 30th where our own Randy Zinn talks more in depth on the subject. And as always if you have questions about your network and what Micro Systems Management can do to make it safe – give your friendly IT wizards a call!
NOTE: This exercise is to gain an understanding of what a forensic image is, and how they are created. We strongly recommend that you contact a certified forensic examiner to create images that will be introduced as evidence.
Not long ago, I was speaking with an attorney over a case which involved dates of creation and dates of access. They told me how concerned they were that when they copied these files to a flash drive, all of the creation dates changed to the day that they copied them! What could possibly be wrong?
A simple misunderstanding of how to acquire information was all that was at stake. Well, that and the case. For anyone needing to preserve the state of information of, say a hard drive, it is important to seek the assistance of a certified forensic examiner. They will be able to make an accurate bit-by-bit “image” of the data source, so that it can be referenced, viewed, extracted, etc., without the risk of altering the state of the data. Now some of you might wonder why I put the word Image in quotes. This is a term of art. Many attorneys refer to an image as a photograph, or a graphic. In the scope of forensic acquisition, it means a bit-by-bit duplicate of the media, created is such a way that it can be verified, and not altered.
Can anyone make a forensic image? Well, this part isn’t very difficult. But you do want to be certain that you document what you are doing, and can explain how you were able to authenticate that the image was correctly produced. At the very least, it is an EXCELLENT exercise for an attorney to do a forensic acquisition so that when you have to speak with an examiner, you will have more of an idea of what they are going to do for you and your case.
First, you will need forensic acquisition software. Not to fear, it is free from my friends at Access Data. The link for the Windows version that is current as of this writing is here: http://accessdata.com/product-download/digital-forensics/ftk-imager-version-3.4.3 . Once it is downloaded, go ahead and install it. It is quite small. I’ll wait.
The next thing we will need are two flash drives. Smaller is better for our example. One however should be slightly larger than the other. So a 1GB and a 2GB flash drive would be great. (It is important that you use different size flash drives – your destination should always be larger than your source) Format the larger of the two devices (your destination media) so that there is no data on it. (A forensic examiner would do a ‘wipe’ to make certain that the media is completely erased before beginning, but that is not necessary for this exercise). Take the 1GB flash drive (this will become our SOURCE media), and copy some files from your computer onto the drive. Browse the flash drive to make certain that your newly copied files made it safely to our source media. Next we start FTK imager. Once you start FTK, Your screen should look like this:
At the top of the screen, on the left side are two small green icons. The first one allows us to pick a single device that we want to image. When you click that, a screen will pop up to ask you what it is that you want to create a forensic image of. In this instance we want to take an image of a PHYSICAL DRIVE. Select that. Your screen should look like this:
You will now be presented with a drop down box asking you WHICH physical drive you want to image. Remember when I told you to use different sized drives? The drop down box identifies the devices that are currently attached to your computer. Since FTK doesn’t recognize drive letters here, you should pick the device that is the size of your source media. In this image you can see that I have two devices attached to my computer: my hard drive, and the 1GB flash drive:
When you click finish at the bottom of the screen, your source drive should be listed on the left hand side of the screen in FTK.
Now it is time to create our forensic image. While leaving the source drive plugged into your computer, now add your DESTINATION flash drive. PLEASE be careful at this juncture to select the correct drives – we don’t want you to overwrite something important.
Right click on the drive that is in the evidence tree. Using the above example, you would right-click on \\PHYSICAL DRIVE1. A small menu should pop up – please select EXPORT DISK IMAGE.
So far, so good. We aren’t done yet though …
When you click the EXPORT DISK IMAGE menu item, you will get a screen asking for the DESTINATION MEDIA information. It should look like this:
Please take care to tick the box at the bottom that says “VERIFY IMAGES AFTER THEY ARE CREATED”. This is of paramount importance. Then click the ADD button. You will be asked what type of image to create. These are different formats that are readable by different systems. The most universally accepted are DD and E01 images. You should not concern yourself with the other two types at this time. Just so we can all be on the same page, please select E01 and click NEXT. On this screen you can identify the information relevant to your case. None of this is mandatory, but it is all a really good idea. Go ahead and populate this information – you will see why in a few minutes. When you are ready click NEXT for the image destination screen.
First let’s click the BROWSE button, and find the DESTINATION flash drive that you plugged in. (Note, there shouldn’t be any files on it – if there ARE files, you either did not format the drive, or you have selected the WRONG drive. So, using my example, my destination flash drive is drive Y and the image filename I have chosen is “DemoImage”.
For the purposes of this exercise, we won’t go onto the other settings on this page. After you have these items properly populated, then click FINISH. Now you are returned to the CREATE IMAGE screen. Since we have no more source media to add, double-check that the box is ticked at the bottom that says “Verify images after they are created”, and click START. Since the source media is only 1GB in size, this will only take less than 5 minutes to create the image and to verify it. When the process is finished you will see “Image Created Successfully” in the STATUS field of the progress box. A new box should have popped up on your screen that says “Drive/Image Verify Results”
Mine looks like this:
This is a really important screen. When you see the word HASH, this is another term of art. It is a method of positively identifying a file, folder, or drive, so that it can be verified that it has not been altered. FTK Imager calculated two different types of HASH before it imaged your source drive. After it completed the process, it calculated those HASHES again, and they both matched. THAT means that you have authenticated your image and can be certain that it is an accurate representation of the source drive. If anyone were to alter anything it this image, even a comma, the HASH that would be calculated would NOT match.
So, you have successfully created your first forensic image of a drive. Congratulations!
Now …. What can you do with it?
Lets go ahead and close the FTK windows that are up. Let’s pretend that an attorney gave you this destination drive with the image on it for you to examine.
When you look at the drive itself, you will see lots of files that have the same filename, but a different extension. You can’t use Word or Excel, or notepad to read this. What can you use? FTK Imager. FTK Imager will not only CREATE images, it will also READ them.
Start FTK imager again. Click the little green icon on the left to Add Evidence Item. This time when it asks the source type, select IMAGE FILE. Click next and browse to the image that you created on your destination flash drive.
My screen looks like this:
Click on the DemoImage.E01 file. Hey! There are TWO of those. Well, not really. One it a TEXT file that will have the case information and the hash information of the image, and the other one is the E01 file that you created. Note the extension difference in the TYPE column. Select the E01 file named DemoImage.E01, then click OPEN, and FINISH.
You have NOW opened your forensic image of the source media that you created. In the column on the left, you will see the file DemoImage in the Evidence Window. If you click the + sign next to the items in the list, you will drill down to the files that are on your source device.
The next article will talk about all the things you can see in an image that you may not be able to see on the source media.
The holiday season is here, and that means shopping rushes as far as the eye can see. Unfortunately, with so many people out an about, it’s also identity theft season. Identity theft is a problem that holiday shoppers seem to put off, many of them with the “it won’t happen to me mentality.”
THIS MENTALITY IS A TRAP.
Complacency is never an option when it comes to identity theft, and with online shopping becoming more and more popular, it’s easier than ever for the ethically loose to obtain personal information from unsuspecting victims.
How Do I Protect Myself from Identity Theft?
Identity and information theft preys upon the unprepared and uncaring, but can be made much less problematic with a few simple preventative measures we at Micro Systems urge people to take.
- Never shop on an unsecured network. This is a simple one, but many people don’t realise the inherit danger. Local shops and cafes that offer free public wifi are often unsecured networks. What this means is that anyone using a signal interceptor can obtain any information people on that network type in. Which in the holiday season often includes banking information and email passwords.
- Never use a Debit Card When Shopping Online. The problem with debit cards versus credit, is that they are directly connected to your bank account, and are more difficult to dispute purchases on. If someone has your debit card, they have your bank account.
- Keep your Information Close. Information attacks are going to increase during this season, so being a little more careful about who you give your information to is a reasonable precaution.
- Invest in an RFID Blocker. These can be small cards or sleeves often inserted into your wallet. What these do is they block the scans taken by a skimmer; a device people use to obtain credit and debit card information simply by having it near your pocket. Having one of these can mean much more peace of mind when in busy shopping centers.
- Keep Informed. Stay up to date about cyber attacks so you can avoid any websites or locales known for being identity theft hotspots.
- Complex and Often Changing Passwords. This is something people should do year-round but if an excuse is needed, the holiday shopping season will do. A simple change like adding a numerical sequence and random capitalizations can make a password much more difficult to crack. (Ex. “password” -> “12pAsSwOrD34”). Changing your passwords even on a monthly basis can also increase your personal security.
These are just a handful of strategies to protect your personal information and prevent people from obtaining what is most important to you. Remember to be safe this shopping season, and we at Micro Systems Management wish you Happy Holidays!
It’s November and that means shopping! As we progress in our technological age, so too does the role of technology in our spending habits; and technology is becoming a rapidly larger part of the Holiday shopping season (Cyber Monday is an excellent example). Due to this, a very common question received by IT professionals is this:
“What computer should I purchase?”
A daunting question for individuals and businesses alike, finding the right computer is an important step in a large investment. Computers fill an ever increasing role in our society, and (especially for businesses) can greatly influence the amount of accessibility a person has. This in mind, it is important to know how to decide effectively on a new machine.
What Makes Computers Different?
Undoubtedly, you’ve heard of the “Mac V PC” argument when it comes to deciding on a computer purchase, when in reality you have many more options than this. Different machines built by different companies are made to do different things and there are many choices. This means (usually) computers aren’t objectively better or worse than their competitors, they just do different things. For instance, to use the Mac and PC example, Macs traditionally have powerful graphics processors, high-quality speakers, and a more streamlined interface, making them excellent for roles amongst artists, musicians, and entertainment facets. PCs on the other hand will typically have excellent central processors, more efficient batteries, and are a little easier to code, making them the superior choice for technical work such as you might find in an IT environment or law firm. As stated earlier, you have much more than two choices, as there are hundreds of PC and Mac models alone.
Hardware isn’t everything though, so you’ll also need to consider software. This means considering things like “What programs can I run?”, and “Are my programs updated?” After all, not all computers can run the same software. You’d also be considering things like antivirus options, operating systems, word processors, and so on. These can drastically change the experience you have with said hardware, as a new OS can make or break the user experience for new devices.
What Machine Is Right for Me and My Company?
Only you can decide the machine that is right for you, but we at Micro Systems are happy to help with that decision. For businesses, it is common for PCs to be recommended, we frequently suggest Dell Personal Computers to our clients. However, business clients should consider other technology as well to ensure the smoothest experience. Other devices common are telephone systems, web and email filters, and cameras; all of which we are happy to offer our help to find solutions for. When attempting to locate the right solution for your personal or business use, context is truly everything, so if you are looking for an upgrade this holiday season for you are your company, email or call us and we will do our best to locate the best possible equipment for your situation and budget. Also, remember to shop safe!
Information Technology companies and departments alike have always been plagued by a stigma; that if you need to call them, there is something seriously wrong with your network. It’s a bit like getting called to the principal’s office, and this feeling of trepidation is largely caused by a fear most technology companies experience, one I must unfortunately validate.
No. Network. Is. Safe.
In the field of technology, it is an unpleasant and an inescapable fact. Security is of the utmost importance in modern technology and it is something often ignored because nobody wants to deal with it. But it is imperative that anyone working in this field not only understand how to safeguard their own network, but to understand the function and goals of malicious programs (also called “malware”) that are designed to do harm to your network.
How Do Malicious Programs work?
An important step in understanding the function of these programs is to know that they are simply that-programs. On a conceptual level, a virus or malware program is not much different from any other program, except that it has outcomes that you do not want. Such software is designed to either damage, control, or influence the hardware or operating system that it targets. This can range from anything to encrypting files while awaiting a ransom to transmitting all the data from the target machine to a third party. These programs have a variety of sources, including but not limited to criminal corporations operating outside the purview of the law, single programmers attempting to make a quick buck, or the always infamous extremist group. When it comes to prevention, the source is not as important; what does matter is that attacks and infections on a network can be the single most costly issue a company will face. If a network suffers, for instance, a ransomware attack, no files, accounts, or data can be accessed on that network until the ransom is payed, and even then the data may still remain encrypted depending on the whim of the attacker.
How Can Malicious Programs affect my network?
There is an abundance of malicious software variations, due to the fact that these are as previously mentioned, simply programs, and thus can be unique in function and purpose, but for brevity’s sake we will cover some of the most important types of these programs. A relatively simple and common program is a trojan. A trojan’s purpose is reflective of its’ namesake, in that it pretends to be a legitimate or crucial piece of software to trick the user into downloading it, and upon installation hides itself inside the local files of the and then unleashes its’ “troops”. That is to say, it begins to do what it was designed to. This can mean everything from copying data, to deleting it. A new(er) type of malware that’s been making rounds lately is malvertising-(you can read our previous TechBits article on malvertising to get a much more in-depth description). Suffice it to say that malvertising uses internet ads to infect the target machine. Ransomware is software that encrypts all the data on a network and holds the de-encryption key for a ransom, though on occasion even paying the ransom will not coax the attacker into providing the de-encryption key, if the attacker is a person instead of an automated procedure. Though it’s important to know these types of malware, there are countless variants, and the variants are increasing at an alarming rate.
What Can I Do?
When people think of malware they often feel that they are safe with a single antivirus, firewall, or (and this will make your IT cringe) having a Mac because Apple products “don’t get viruses” (yes, they do). Whereas this can be enough for personal devices on a home network, the modern business cannot afford to use only a single source of malware protection. The most secure networks have layers upon layers of security and are very difficult to break through. On a more practical level, it is typically acceptable to have two layers: one passive one active. An “active” layer of protection would be like the anti-virus you are probably familiar with, something to actively scan files in your network to locate and quarantine dangerous programs until they can be properly disposed of. Passive protection is a little different. An example of passive technology would be a web filter. The Web Filter doesn’t necessarily actively search and root out malicious programs, but rather acts like a sieve and prevents many malicious programs from coming into contact with your network in the first place. Another source of protection that should be mentioned is Web Application Filters. Web Application Filters, or WAFs, monitor attempts from outside your network to gain access through applications that are Internet Facing (Such as web-based email, or self-hosted websites. It is not uncommon to see thousands of attempts per day of malicious actors attempting to gain access to a protected system through a web-based application.
A question anyone with an IT background has been asked at some point (and probably more than once) is this:
“What antivirus should I get?”
It’s an excellent question, there are many, many options for anti-virus/anti-malware software, some are free some are paid. An adage to consider is that “you get what you pay for” – we like to add the codicil, “if you are lucky” at the end. One option that we at Micro Systems currently suggest and offer is Kaspersky, which is a comprehensive anti-virus software combined with the added protection of the commercial version of MalwareBytes. As for passive protection, we provide multiple solutions from Barracuda-ranging from Spam Gateways, to Content Web Filters to Web Application Firewalls. Micro Systems Management has always been focused on providing the best security options for our clients’ network, and we aren’t stopping now. So give us a call, send us an email, or visit our website if you have any questions regarding your network, and we will do our best to secure the lifeblood of your company – your network.
If you’re anything like me, you’ve probably forgotten your keys a time or two walking out the door. To forget things you’ve learned is natural for us illogical humans, but what about computers? How exactly does a computer remember and what about long term and short term memory? Many people don’t realize that there are actually multiple different types of computer memory and they all play a different role in data storage and retrieval. As a consumer/business owner, it is imperative to know the difference between these two, and when they might need replaced. When it comes to computer memory, there’s no real short answer, so best to view the topic as a whole.
How Does Computer Memory Work?
Computer memory is tricky because it works less like our own memory and more like writing something down. The type of computer memory in this analogy is the material you’re writing on-sand or paper. There is two kinds of memory in a computer: volatile and nonvolatile. Volatile memory is like writing in sand (short term memory); it’s there to be easily and readily accessed by your computer to make things faster, but the information is lost as soon as power is lost, like waves washing it away. Nonvolatile memory (long term memory) is more what people encounter when speaking of memory – it’s like writing on paper, its permanent. So if we have nonvolatile memory that never erases unless deleted, why do we have volatile memory? The purpose of volatile memory on your computer memory is to keep it readily at hand if the information is needed. It contains information like browser cookies, auto-fill, and temporary files. This decreases processing time these items would usually take up, since the computer can access its’ volatile memory to access them instead of having to download them from their original source. No doubt you’ve heard the term “RAM” in reference to computer storage, most people know that the more RAM you have-the faster the computer right? This is partially true, as RAM is the source of the volatile memory that ceases to be when your computer is turned off, so the more information your computer can temporarily hold, the faster it can potentially run. You might notice that if you leave your computer running without shutting down or losing power for extended periods of time it runs slower; this is because your available RAM is lower than it should be, since its’ been accumulating data without shutting down. It should be mentioned, however, that RAM is only half the story when it comes to the speed of your device-you should always be sure to know how much RAM your device can support at maximum.
How Can Computer Memory Affect My Company?
This is a topic many companies seem to brush to the sidelines and in reality, is something you as a business owner will want to pay close attention to. When it comes to your storage (that’s your non-volatile memory) running out of this means pretty effectively ending whatever functions your computers handle. With no space for new information, you will stop receiving email, lose the ability to save files, will be unable to download items from the internet, and you run the risk of having your main servers crash-one of the worst things that can happen to a business computer network. The importance of keeping track of your memory usage cannot be stressed enough in a business environment. It’s also important to keep an eye on RAM and volatile memory, which can cause decreased performance when low, though this is less often a problem. Luckily, there is a simple solution when it comes to remedying low memory: buy more. Memory is sold in all shapes and sizes and typically if, say, your servers are holding about all the information they can and need a memory upgrade, it’s just a matter of installing more RAM into the machine. That being said though, memory can be expensive to purchase in large quantities and many companies will want to avoid this entirely: don’t avoid this entirely. Whereas it can be expensive to upgrade a device’s memory banks, it’s more expensive to lose a server for extended periods of time because it ran out of space to write information.
Memory is an odd subject with computers, due to them storing information much differently than we do. As such, people often become confused when their computer develops a memory issue. Things likes low disk space are common and easily fixed, though there are some more obtuse issues that can crop up with memory, like what to do when a hard disk becomes physically damaged and writing to the disk becomes nearly impossible. As always, when the problems that make you drop your head onto your desk in frustration and dismay reveal themselves to you and your business, Micro Systems Management stands at the ready, with our team of experts to fix the ridiculous, the unthinkable, and the weird problems of the IT world.
There’s been a bit of heatwave…well, everywhere recently. This brings up the always interesting topic of heat with relation to your hardware. It’s common knowledge that laptops and PCs can overheat when improperly treated, but servers are possibly even more vulnerable. Servers are typically left continuously running in a confined space and overheating can seriously threaten your data and business continuity. But overheating is a multi-faceted issue, and numerous reasons can be the cause; everything from the temperature of the room, what programs are running, to CPU overclocking.
How Computers Handle Heat
As electricity is carried throughout your device, it inevitably generates heat that can potentially damage your device if not cooled properly. This is typically done with heat sinks and cooling fans inside your device. The cooling fan you’re probably familiar with; it creates the “whirring” sound associated with booting up a computer. The fan has variable speed settings, and will speed up or slow down depending on how much heat needs dissipating; you may notice when you boot up larger programs you can hear the fan speed up in response to this. Heat sinks you may not recognize if you weren’t looking for them; they are small metal fins standing perpendicular to their mount. Heat sinks work by simply providing a conductive surface for heat to transfer to; bigger surface area, means less heat. There are a few other less common cooling systems, even liquid cooled devices exist, though you won’t typically encounter these in an office or home setting.
What Exactly Does Overheating Do?
Overheating can be more of a problem than most people suspect, as it’s typically associated with simple crashing and rebooting. Computers are designed to avoid internal fires and melting points for obvious reasons. Because of this, most modern devices are built with fail-safes that will begin to shut down certain portions of the device if overheating begins-likely culminating in a crash. Best case scenario, you reboot your device and everything is fine; the heating maybe caused by your cat laying too close to the vent blocking it. But overheating can wreak havoc if the conditions are right. Simple physics tells us that when things heat up, they expand. This is very bad for computers; if the computer overheats to this point, it can physically warp your hard-drive making it inoperable.
Not only this, but small amounts of overheating can slow your device, and even shorten its’ lifespan by up to two years. Most computers are designed to have a maximum internal temperature of 80 degrees Fahrenheit, if you are consistently running that or above, you may be killing your device without even knowing it. All of this sounds bad, sure, but what does it mean to your business? An overheat of say, your host server, can mean a crash that will keep the system down until the server can be properly cooled and re-booted. This may take ten minutes, or it may take three hours-and time is money.
How Can I Prevent My Device from Overheating?
There’s a few different common causes from overheating that most people (especially those handling important data) should know about. For personal computer or laptops, always make sure the heating vents are unobstructed. If you have vents on the bottom of a laptop, for instance, be sure to rest the device on a hard surface while operating, soft surfaces like your carpet and cotton will insulate the vents and can cause an overheat. Another way to prevent heating issues is to simply clean your device every now and again. Dust built up on the inside of a device acts as an insulator and will lead to higher running temperatures, as well as being able to clog and stop the cooling fan. Another common one is that if you’re using a PC-do not operate the device with an open case! There’s a rumor or two floating about that cracking open the side of your PC casing can give it a better airflow and help it cool-what this actually does is it serves to disrupt the airflow of the device’s cooling fan and it presents your computer internals to external debris and dust which can eventually cause an overheat. Another important aspect to look at it your devices’ location, try to stay away from tight isolated spaces like desk drawers; compact and seemingly convenient as it might sound, the ultimate result is that tight spaces means poor air circulation, and higher running temperatures. A popular trend amongst gamers and people wanting more out of their PC is overclocking. Overclocking is at its’ base form, forcing the CPU to run faster than recommended. This won’t cause instant death; however, should you choose to overlock your CPU be aware of your operating temperature-it will increase. PCs and laptops aren’t the only devices susceptible to overheating, though. Your servers are just as, if not, more vulnerable to heating issues. Location is one of the largest issues to look out for when it comes to server heating; when placing your server, you want to make sure the location is well-ventilated, large enough to allow cool air to circulate, and you want it to be void of open windows. When placing your servers in racks, you also want to make sure they are arranged the same direction, so one server is not blowing hot air into the intake vent of another. Also, one last note for proper server care, make sure your server room’s A/C is set for optimum device cooling and not people cooling-remember computers shouldn’t run above 80 degrees so they have to stay much cooler than we do.
So What Happens if My Device Overheats Anyway?
Give your friendly IT wizards a call.
Computers and other devices can talk to each other, but computers on their own can only handle so much information; if you tried to host all of, say, Google on a single server, it’s simply not possible without a server bigger than your average house. Computers can talk to each other in networks through various means of connection. This connection can be crucial to your operations as a company, or to how fast you can get that cat video to buffer at home. Firstly, for those people unfamiliar with the basic concepts of connectivity and networking; we offer a little primer (you veterans may skip ahead a section if you’d like).
Computers are intelligent things, insofar as they can handle a great deal of information, but they’re limited by the amount of information a hard drive can hold. This is where networks come in, the concept to get two (or more) devices to share the information they hold. When these computers are connected, they can share information, but the method of connection itself dictates how fast information can be transferred and how far that information can be transferred. A common type of connection you may have heard of is Ethernet. Ethernet is a type of cable (usually a thick, white or blue cable with a white/clear jack) that runs from the back of most devices into whatever provides your network capabilities (likely a router). An Ethernet cable works very much like a highway; you have one centralized avenue for information to travel (that’s the cable itself) with multiple small “driveways” so information can leave its host device to travel on this “highway” (the “driveways” are the Ethernet ports). Information can then flow more or less freely between devices. Once that occurs, you have your network. Another common connection for computers is one you most likely experience everyday: Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi is not the magical internet particle that the gods of the web have bestowed upon the common folk, despite how people think (or don’t think) of it. Wi-Fi, at its’ core, is data transfer via radio waves. Wi-Fi is different than Ethernet insofar as the data transfer is typically slower, but the lack of cables and maintenance means more reliability and ease of use, though it is less secure. Trading ability for convenience, though certain advancements in Wi-Fi have recently allowed for transmission speeds approaching (but not matching) Ethernet cables. Fiber optics are a newer transmission type with incredible transmission speed, though they are very fragile due to their glass cables, and much more expensive than other options. The basics of how they work is: in lieu of radio waves to transmit data, fiber optics use light, allowing incredibly fast transmission speed.
Why does connection matter?
It seems like a silly question, but for many people how they have a connection is irrelevant as long as they have one. Largely, people are satisfied to be connected and don’t think about things like network speed; if something is accessing slowly, it must be an issue with my provider/computer! This is not always the case, though. Sometimes your Wi-Fi signal may be blocked by a wall (older buildings may have block walls or cement ceilings which can result in poor signal), or your Ethernet cable might not be connected on both ends. This all seems trivial until you’re attempting to pull a crucial document off a networked server and it won’t download. Or consider a skype meeting across continents to ensure a deal goes smoothly and the video keeps failing. Most modern companies use computer networking in some way; advertisement via website, grouped workstations, usage of cloud servers; these all require an internet connection, and it can make a real, monetary difference to know the difference between your provider having an issue or a poor signal because someone installed your router behind a brick wall. You should also be careful when accessing public wireless. Typically places like Starbucks will have an unencrypted free public Wi-Fi; you should be careful on these networks and avoid using anything that requires a password: email, banking, and shopping to name a few. These networks are easy prey for people looking to intercept personal information. The internet is not the quiet, gentle place it once was.
What can I do about my connection?
There’s a variety of ways to improve your internet connection on your own without rousing the beast in your office that is the IT department. These methods can be situational though, and vary depending on the problem and type of connection. First, you need to determine that it is in fact a problem with your network connection; what type of computer do you own? Some models come with radio switches that can turn the radio inside of your computer on or off – if it’s off, you’re not going to be connected to the internet anytime soon. Also check to make sure you’re connected to the correct network – Wi-Fi has a limited range so if you’re trying to connect to a network some distance away you might encounter difficulty. On that note you should always know whether you have a wired or wireless internet setup; you can tell this by the connection icon in the lower right of most PCs.
|A few examples of common symbols used to express your devices’ internet connection|
Another question to ask: are you the only one having issues? Ask around, see if anyone else can connect with the internet – if they can’t, it’s probably not an isolated problem to you. So how do you determine where the problem is when it’s not just you? Go to adjacent office, ask your neighbor if they are having any trouble. If they are (and they use the same service provider) there is likely nothing much you can do, since it’s on the provider’s end. If they’re not having issues, it’s most likely a problem with your network. So what’s the issue exactly now that we’ve determined it’s your network? If everyone is still connected but has a weak or sporadic signal (1-2 bars for Wi-Fi), check your router. It may be that your router is placed far away from the machines it’s connecting, or it may be obstructed. Radio waves can travel through walls but thick walls like concrete can severely weaken or block them. Resetting your router can often help, but you should never do this without checking with your boss/notifying your employees; the internet might stay down and that can hurt everyone. Also before handling a router be careful! Some routers are more complex than others and it has the capability to do damage and loss of company productivity if you just start flipping switches. Beyond these basic solutions, it becomes a good idea to contact your IT professional (we happen to know just the right people) and remember to ask nicely, computer wizardry isn’t easy, you know.
This is not the first time in recent months that the IRS has disabled the e-File PIN as the result of suspicious activity.3 As of January 2016, the IRS detected an automated attack against its e-File PIN application.4
The January 2016, e-File PIN attack involved hackers collecting personal information from other sources and then using the Social Security Numbers of those people to generate e-File PINs.5 According to the IRS, approximately 464,000 Social Security Numbers were involved and the hackers successfully generated e-File PINs for 101,000 Social Security Numbers.6
The IRS had already been considering scrapping the e-File PIN application at some time in 2016, but the integration of a number of commercial tax applications with e-File PIN led to the IRS choosing not to do away with it after the first reported attack against the application earlier this year.7
How Can You Protect Yourself?
One of the key findings in the IRS alert released on June 24, 2016, is that in the January 2016, attack, the criminals used information they obtained from other sources to attack the e-File PIN.8 Information that the hackers used included:
Ask yourself how many of the above things can be found about you online. Think about the information you share on websites like Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Instagram. If the above information is available on any of your online accounts then you are making it easier for hackers to use your information in attacks. Remember, hackers can obtain this information from other sources too. One non-cyber way hackers can collect information to use in a follow-on cyber attack is impersonating the IRS during phone calls.14 Of course hackers can attempt to collect information about you through a variety of media including phone calls, text messages, emails, and faxes.15
Here are some extra tips on how to keep yourself safe.
- Limit the amount of information you provide to websites.
- When you provide personal information to websites make sure you are on an encrypted connection.
- Do not do any sensitive work (filing your taxes, accessing your bank account, or paying for things online) on the same computer you do heavy web browsing.
- Regularly update your anti-virus.
- Regularly run full anti-virus scans of all of your systems (computers and phones).
- When a virus is found on your computer, immediately take appropriate security steps to secure all accounts that have been accessed from that computer and verify that the infection is properly removed from your computer.
- Keep the operating system on your computer completely updated.
- Keep programs on your computer like Java and Flash completely updated.
- Enable the firewall on your computer and make sure it is configured to block unauthorized inbound traffic.
- Never reply to unsolicited emails requesting sensitive information. If you receive an email requesting information contact the sender by phone or in person to confirm they sent the email and if they need the information they asked for arrange to provide the information in person or using encryption.
If you believe you are a victim of an IRS scam or are suspicious about a phone call, text message, email, fax, or letter in the mail requesting information claiming it is from the IRS report the incident with the IRS following the directions on their website.
If you have questions, are interested in scheduling security training, or have a virus on your computer you want assistance with, please contact us to setup a meeting.
Microsoft Outlook is a little bit like cooking: everyone knows at least a little about it, and many people depend on it in their day-to-day lives. But as everyone who’s ever tasted Aunt Matilda’s Holiday Jello Surprise knows, not all cooks are created equal. (No offense to any actual Aunt Matildas out there; I’m sure your cooking is delightful.)
Point being, most Outlook users only touch the tip of the iceberg when it comes to all the different things Outlook can do. So, without further ado, here are a few effort-saving Outlook tricks to have up your sleeve. (Note: these tips were written with Outlook 2013 in mind. Certain functions may be different in older Outlook versions.)
Keep track of your billable hours, phone calls, tasks, meetings, etc. with the Journal tool.
It’s hard to believe so few people know about or use this tool, since it’s so versatile. It even has a built-in timer so that you’ll accurately know exactly how long that meeting took. (Your billing department is going to LOVE you.) To find it, select the Folders option on the taskbar at the bottom of the screen. In the navigation pane to the left of your inbox, select Journal. You can add a new entry by clicking on Journal Entry under the Home tab, and a dropdown box allows you to choose categories for phone calls, faxes, meetings, tasks, and others. You can add notes to yourself, details, you can color-code your entries, view them different ways…you get the idea. The Timer option (under the Journal Entry tab) will let you start or stop timekeeping for a task.
Create email templates and reusable text blocks without copy-and-pasting.
To create an email template: This is a good option if you need “form letters” of any kind. Write out the “master” version of the email (you don’t have to send it) and then, under the blue File tab, click Save As. In the Save as type bar, below the File name bar, click the dropdown arrow and select Outlook Template. Give it a descriptive title (e.g. “Sales Form Letter”) and save it. When you want to create a new message using the template, either double-click on the file you saved itself, or, under the Home tab, go to New Items > More Items > Choose Form…. Click the dropdown arrow for the Look In bar and select User Templates in File System. Your template should show up there.
To create reusable text blocks: This can save you time if you frequently use the same paragraphs, images, or links in your emails. Type the text you want to reuse into a new email message and highlight it with your cursor. Then, from the Insert tab, click Quick Parts and then Save Selection to Quick Part Gallery. Give the block a name (e.g. “Greeting,” “Disclaimer”). The next time you want to include the text block in your email, select the Quick Part you created from the Insert > Quick Parts menu.
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